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Potential risk factors for solar polysilicon production process

Different from those used to electronics and solar cells, monocrystalline silicon, is also different from amorphous silicon thin-film devices and solar cells, polysilicon is made up of tiny silicon materials. Major polysilicon producer Hemlock Semiconductor, OCI, WACKER (Wacker Chemie), GCL-poly energy, and REC, LDK Solar, MEMC, and some smaller producers.

Polysilicon industry is developing rapidly, and levels above 1000t polysilicon production plant were built. However, polysilicon production process, hydrogen, chlorine, trichlorosilane and silicon and other harmful substances, and there are fire, explosion, poisoning, suffocation, electric shock injuries and many other risk factors.

Harmful substances produced in the polysilicon production process of chlorine gas, hydrogen, Silicon, hydrogen chloride, trichlorosilane, main risk characteristics are:

1. hydrogen gas: mix can form explosive mixtures with air, heat or open flame or explosion. Gas is lighter than air, when indoors use and storage, leakage increased stranded roof difficult to discharge, when Mars will cause an explosion. Halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine and hydrogen will react violently.

2. oxygen, combustible materials, combustible matter combustion and explosion of one of the essential elements and oxidation of most active substances. And combustible (such as acetylene and methane) forms explosive mixtures.

3. chlorine: a pungent odor and can be generated with a number of chemical explosions or explosive material. Almost all metallic and non-metallic corrosion. Are highly toxic. Is a strong irritant gases.

4. hydrogen chloride: anhydrous hydrogen chloride is non corrosive, but when in contact with water, are corrosive. Can react with reactive metal powders, releasing hydrogen gas. Cyanide can produce highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas.

5. three hydrogen Silicon chlorine: open flame burning strongly. Subject to high thermal decomposition may produce toxic chlorine gas. Reacts with oxidants, are a fire hazard. Very volatile and fumes in the air, in contact with water or water vapour can generate heat and toxic corrosive smoke. Combustion (decomposition) products: hydrogen chloride, silica.

6. Silicon tetrachloride: heating or hot water liberation, release toxic corrosive smoke.

7. hydrofluoric acid: corrosive, very strong. H vesicant immediately burned. Can react with bare metal and releases hydrogen with air to form an explosive mixture.

8. a nitric acid: strong oxidizing. And combustible (such as benzene) and organic matter (such as sugar, cellulose) exposure will react violently, even cause fire. With alkali metals react violently. Has strong corrosion resistance.

9. the nitrogen: in case of high fever, increased pressure within the container. Cracking and danger of explosion.

10. hydrogen fluoride: highly corrosive. In case of high fever, increased pressure within the container, is in danger of cracking and exploding.

11. sodium hydroxide solution: this product is non-combustible, with strong strong corrosive, irritant can cause the human body burns.

Second, electric shock, other risk factors such as mechanical damage

Fire, explosion, poisoning is polysilicon projects in major danger and harmful factors in production, in addition, there is electric shock, mechanical damage, corrosion, dust and other hazardous and harmful factors. Are:

1. preparation of hydrogen: electrolyzer, hydrogen, and oxygen tanks, fire and explosion, electric shock and mechanical damage.

2. hydrogen chloride synthesis: synthesis furnace of hydrogen chloride, chlorine and hydrogen gas buffer tanks, fire and explosion, poisoning, electrocution.

3. the three Silicon-hydrogen chloride synthesis: three Silicon-hydrogen chloride synthesis furnace, synthesis gas scrubbers, feeding machine, fire and explosion, electric shock, poisoning, corrosion, mechanical damage and dust.

4. the synthesis gas separation: mixed gas scrubber, hydrogen chloride absorption tower, Tower, the mixed gas compressor hydrogen chloride resolved, fire and explosion, electric shock, poisoning, corrosion, mechanical damage.

5. separation of chlorosilanes: distillation, reboiler, condenser air, fire and explosion, electric shock, poisoning, corrosion, mechanical damage.

6. the three hydrogen Silicon chlorine reduction: three hydrogen Silicon chlorine carburetor, reduction furnace, reduction furnace cooling water circulation pumps, fire and explosion, electric shock, poisoning, corrosion, mechanical damage.

7. restore gas separation: mixed gas scrubber, gas compressors, hydrogen chloride absorption towers, fire and explosion, electric shock, poisoning, corrosion, mechanical damage.

8. hydrogen-Silicon tetrachloride: Silicon tetrachloride carburetor, hydrogen furnace, fire and explosion, electric shock, poisoning, corrosion, mechanical damage.

Based on the above analysis, it is the main potential risks of fire and explosion, chemical poisoning, harmful factors in terms of technology, equipment, facilities and protection problems and defects, is very likely to occur, it should be for reasons that may occur and take preventive measures to actively exclude.

Primary prevention measures are: automatic control system for production use, and improve the standard of control; in chlorine, hydrogen chloride, trichlorosilane Silicon Silicon chloride, hydrochloric acid, easy to leak part of fresh air and sets flammable and toxic gas detection and alarm system; personnel issued qualified for the job for antivirus, dust-proof and burns and other protective equipment to avoid risks of polysilicon.

Difference between thermodynamic solar panel system and other heating devices

Difference between thermodynamic solar panel system and  other heating devices

Central heating
Winter heating is necessary for residence in northern China, the main use of central heating. Heat supply was heating company or community in the boiler room. At present, mostly coal-fired, gas-fired heating system boiler and fuel oil as a heat source, via extranet or intranet and interior systems. There is also a central heating, central air conditioning and heating. This method of heating is currently widely used in high-end real estate, air-cooled and water-cooled air conditioning systems.

For individual heating
According to a Beijing real estate company survey of consumer demand for heating mode: municipal central heating for 46%, proportion of household heating second only to City Central heating, 44%, proportion of household central air-conditioning demand is 23%, demand for household-type wall-mounted gas boiler for 21%.
Household heating feature is that users can choose according to their preferences, but heat can also be measured. With the emergence of clean energy and new technology, new products, make a diversified choice of heating possible. Central heating’s dominance is being challenged. Integration of independent heating, hot water heating and so on have emerged. Commercialization of housing developments, double guard, duowei the emergence of large scale, duplex, villas, further improve the domestic water-heating and domestic hot water requirements. Integration of household heating facilities and sanitary hot water viewed unfavourably by a growing number of real estate developers.

From the perspective of consumer demand for increasingly high comfort, central heating fix heating and heating temperature, has been unable to adapt to modern consumers ‘ increasing the comfortability of thermal energy, hot water requirements.

Home air conditioning heating
Due to historical habit in southern China, without prior settings in residential heating facilities, but due to the high humidity in the South, the moisture in the air, so that it accelerates the conduction, leading to winter in the South is more cold, air conditioning is generally used for warmth. But the obvious disadvantages of air conditioning, heating: electricity, dry air and dust increased comfort is poor.

Thermodynamic panel system

Using environmental energy sources such as solar, wind and rain as a heat source, can be used in winter temperature:-20 ℃. For solar, heating purposes can be achieved when the sun don’t shine, was really abandoned support of renewable sources of energy for heating. Installation space, power does not need expansion, maintenance, ground copper tube are free of maintenance. Neither the developer nor the single-family laying is a cost-effective investment. Safe use low energy consumption, solar heating home application enhances the penetration. In fruit drying and sludge drying industry also performed well.

Wall-mounted gas boiler heating

Household wall-mounted gas boiler to natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, city gas for energy, available for heating an area of less than 300 square meters per household. Can be installed in a kitchen, balcony, basement or attic. Connected via indoor pipes and radiators, double road can be both heating and domestic hot water supply. Plus loaded indoor temperature control device Hou, can arbitrary regulation different bedroom of temperature; home in the unmanned Shi, just adjustable low temperature, ensure machine and cycle water not frozen can; plus loaded timer, can preset started time, home Hou, immediately can feel home of warm; developers can save boiler room construction, and planning, and maintenance by occupy of funds, and land, and human resources; reduced air pollution.

Electric-heating-film
Electric film is a power fever of translucent polyester film, electric-heating-film method is based on electricity for heat, electric film heating element directly through infrared electromagnetic wave infra-red heat, Sun bathing comfort. But its. Large power, low power community should not be used.

life-energy-saving from “half light” start

“Dimming” more energy-efficient

Over the weekend, to a neighbor’s small home. He has just renovated, small said: “I decorated the main purpose of this time, is to take the saving type products ‘ introduction ‘. ”

Xiao Zhao’s House was bought by seven or eight years ago, when moved in the House was simply decorated. This year, he and wife decided to redecorate homes. In the decoration material, they agreed, should pay attention to

Environmental protection, should also pay attention to saving material.

Xiao Zhao pointed to the living room ceiling and said, here are two chandeliers, each lamp has a dozen bulbs, add up to more than 500 Watts of power. For a bad light bulb is very troublesome, and electricity. Now, living room into two lamp ceiling lamp, each light has two sets of energy-saving lamps can emit yellow and white respectively. With that, he shows up: “press a button, light yellow lamp light; press the switch again, white light lamp light; then click on, yellow and white lamps are lit up. “Xiao Zhao said, usually watching television, open lamp on the trip; children learn while doing homework, a lamp full on, light is enough. A set of lamps is more than more than 50 watts of power, electricity consumption compared to the original chandelier save a lot. This “light” energy-saving lamps not only energy-efficient, and easier to use.

Also, small house, two bathrooms, toilets used to be old fashioned, pressed hub 9 liters of water, looking distressed. Now, Zhao was replaced by small two-button 3/6 liters of water-saving toilet.

Changed so many energy-saving appliances, decoration expenses will increase? Xiao Zhao’s experience is that the saving type products are not necessarily expensive. High middle and low market-saving products have now, selection is huge. He bought this kind of ceiling light elegant beautiful, prices are 228 Yuan, rather than the cheaper prices of chandelier. Energy-saving lamp price is more expensive than standard bulbs, but count saves electricity, and cost-effective.

Family-saving products are still “dead”

Reporter learned that, although more resource-efficient products on the market more, but there are still consumers of such products is not enough “system” and cannot meet domestic needs.

Speaking of water, who lives in Tongzhou district of Beijing, Wu’s wife actually has a lot of trouble. She said home, washing machines, toilets consume large quantities of water, especially in summer, family shower, clothes and change frequently, so consumption is even greater. Washing machine water washed clothes, her existing plastic bucket used to sweep the floor and flush the toilet. But washer hose is low, you cannot directly put the water into the bucket, can only receive in the basin, then the bowl and pour the water into a bucket. Washing machine to wash 40 minutes, Boyle NG bent inside 40 minutes. Wu’s wife, earthy way of water-saving tired and nothing but some of the water is not recycled, made her feel very sorry that: “like a shower of bath water, can also be used to sweep the floor and flushing. But now can’t get them set up and run to waste it’s really a shame. ”

Earthy way of saving water, no problem for older adults, and for the working pressure and the burden of household chores is a strong young man, it’s with no small difficulty.

Home building materials city outside Beijing, reporters encountered was the selection of bathroom products, a middle-aged College teacher. He said that now all have water-saving awareness, but to what extent it is another matter. He certainly will not buy the kind with lots of rainfall showerheads, water “luxury bath”, also can choose to water-saving taps and water-saving toilets, but not as aunt uncle who did “circular” water, too much trouble, cannot afford to spend so much time. He hoped that if there was a water-saving products on the market, integrated systems that use domestic water well. In this way, water can not only save time and effort, and eliminate household waste of water resources, “space”.

Comprehensive promotion to work harder

Several reporters visited the Beijing building materials market, found to purchase water-saving energy-saving products, mostly just bought new houses being decorated consumers, families with housing are using non-conserving products, not many active money or replace-saving product. The reason, mainly some consumers felt that all my stuff still doesn’t work, then get a new, is a waste of time. Vintage faucets, toilets and well “waste away” to spend hundreds of dollars or even thousands of dollars into a conservation-minded products, economic worth.

Experts believe that building a conservation-minded society is the event will benefit future generations, cannot be counted in front of the economic accounts. At present, the urban family non-energy-efficient products are still in heavy use, energy efficient products also required an extra effort. Governments and relevant departments at all levels must take compulsory measures, non-saving products are restricted or even banned in addition to actively open up ways, and wasteful non-efficient product is being used to upgrade. For example, the relevant departments can join hands with the business, distributed free to residents of water-saving faucet, or charge a small fee for onsite replacement of more than 9 litres flush toilet, economical products to enter more families.

9 ways to save energy

Saving energy not only has to do it before you go out to turn off the lights, tighten the faucet, the leftovers to pack these things. Recently, the United States the prevention magazine published many small details of life to let you save energy.

Use compact fluorescent lamps. Each compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL) annual energy cost savings of $ 6. According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data, energy-saving lamps 25%-saving energy than incandescent, extended service life 10 times.

Use the dishwasher. Germany, a study showed, compared with hand-washing, dishwashers only use one-sixth when running at full capacity of water and disinfect better.

Use energy saving device for your air conditioner.It can pay for itself and you take back money within 3months only.

Set the TV to the “standard” mode. Many TV factory image as “bright” and “light” mode, this mode makes images brighter, but it also consumes energy of 10%~20%. Images as much as possible back to “normal” or “standard” mode.

Screen savers do not use pictures. The environmental group, natural resources Defense Council (NRDC) expert jinmu·nuoerdun said: “the complex screen-saver, such as photos, animations, and more, will make the screen continued to shine, increases the power consumption. “Recommends that the screen saver can be set to” black screen after 5 minutes “.

Morning and evening watering the flowers. Watering during the day, especially in the hot sun, evaporation will not be able to penetrate deep into the soil, can also cause water to waste, watering the flowers preferably in the morning or the evening.

Unplug the charger after charging. Many people pulled out only after the end of charging phones, charger is still plugged in to the outlet, which will still have power loss and could result in fire and other hazards, we recommend charging unplug the charger.

Driving constant speed as much as possible. According to United States Department of energy data, sudden acceleration, brakes can be increased up to 33% of oil consumption. Recommended driving a constant speed, speed is also slow, energy-saving at the same time ensuring driving safety.

Clean up the trunk. According to the NRDC data, car trunk full of stuff, will increase fuel consumption by as much as 5%. Recommended periodic cleaning of the trunk, some things you can’t usually use move in a timely manner.

Cleaning the refrigerator. Fridge clutter will also increase energy consumption, recommends fridge only seven points. Need to be reminded that a refrigerator, not right next to the wall, it would be more than 5 cm intervals, or will obstruct the air circulation, to the detriment of refrigerator cooling, increased electricity consumption.

Thermodynamic solar panel water heating system-working principle

Thermodynamic solar panel water heating system-working principle

Thermodynamic solar panel water heating system-working principle:

energy is absorbed from the atmosphere into special fluid circulating through the aluminium panels.when the fluid leaves the panels,it is compressed and becomes a hot gas.the hot gas then flows through a coil inside the water cylinder and heats the water.the gas then goes through a valve and reverts back into a fluid. the fluid then goes back into the panels and the process then continues.using the special fluid instead of water is the secret of the systems success.

ISO poly-State solar thermal utilization system

More usage of refrigerator

Refrigerator, almost used by every family, it has become an integral part of family life. But did you know that refrigerators have many ingenious uses, will bring greater convenience to your life?

1. White sweater long, yellow or black, before he had been a bright look, unfortunately, but was reluctant, then think of it this way: wash before the white sweater in the refrigerator freezer, 1 kid out to dry, its white color would be a degree of recovery.

2. the summer out of clean underwear in plastic bags before well into the fridge, and shower when I get back out and put on underwear, is cool and cool and comfortable.

3. candles in the summer, tends to distort. Keep it in the refrigerator, it can work long time without deformation. If the candle ignited stored for more than 24 hours in the refrigerator before, then the lights will drop the wrong behavior does not occur. Plug your this candle birthday cake wouldn’t be soiled by wax under the Jane.

4. egg Woumbou wipe it again, and then stand on the upside in the refrigerator will cling longer.

5. film of the long periods of inactivity, to be placed in the refrigerator, and even the original expiration date, it can still be used. Temporarily unused pharmaceuticals, batteries can also be stored in refrigerator and drug reduction efficiency for a long time, may extend the lifetime of the battery.

6. the refrigerator storing food, food between it and the wall, between food and food, there should be a 10 mm gap, which is conducive to air flow and food preservation. Middle of the refrigerator especially not too full, because location is not optimal cooling the fridge the lower middle, middle game not plugging the gap, cold air cannot flow down, perishable food corruption, lower.

7. fruit such as bananas, pineapples, and if stored for long periods in the refrigerator will deteriorate or peel the flesh turns black, so can be refrigerated before serving for a short time.

8. use the refrigerator to minimize and reduce the open time and frequency, particularly in summer, if you open too many times or too long will make the food hot and cold affect storage quality. In the hot summer months, refrigerator fear power cuts, after a long time, food will defrost in freezer gone bad. With small plastic bags of water frozen on the ice, has been placed in the freezer, it may prevent the temperature inside the refrigerator when the power outage caused by elevated food bad.

9. refrigerator door gasket surfaces where contact with the door seals and the box evenly with a layer of talcum powder or talcum powder, to prevent the paint on the door being sealed off, and the door can open and close freely, and extend the life of door seals.

Thermodynamic Solar heating systems for Villa

Thermodynamic Solar heating systems for Villa

1, while meeting the heat, can be used in the production of life with hot water.

2, heated pipe through cistern in the system, after enter the heating system, implements Bian Chure heated manner, while ensuring the first hot water instantly and guaranteed the night the remaining hot water function to fine tune micro-fill the heating system to reduce the running time of the system to ensure maximum energy saving rate of the system.

3,Need to install more than 4pcs thermodynamic solar panel.

4,Thermodynamic panel system for villa need professional installer to do it.

Thermodynamic solar panel heating and hot water systems

Thermodynamic solar panel  heating and hot water systems (For single family)

The photo above shows thermodynamic solar panel  heating and hot water systems for single-family using.When it works ,it can meet the heating demand, also can be used in the production of  hot water for life.
You can see,all water enter into water cyliner first of all,and then it flows into the water pipe for heating purpose, while ensuring the first hot water instantly and guaranteed the night the remaining hot water function to fine tune micro-fill the heating system to reduce the running time of the system to ensure maximum energy saving rate of the system.

how to properly start the refrigerator After a long power off

how to properly start the refrigerator after a long power off

You need to take instant start 3 times to start the refrigerator after a long power off . Specific practice is plugged in and then unplug, in 5 minutes, repeat, a total of 3 times, then party to power.

Experts recommend

Encountered after the initial boot, if unnatural or downtime, not cooling noise, leakage failure, should invite the professional maintenance of formal enterprises, do not themselves open to repair, so as not to expand the scope of failure.

Points for attention when used in summer

First, peacetime should clear the box of leftovers as soon as possible. Leftovers on the one hand easy to make refrigerator contents chuanwei, on the other hand are easily corroded by various bacteria, and therefore should be eaten as soon as possible, but remember to be heated before eating.

Second, you should regularly clean the refrigerator, about power washing once in three months. Cleaning including defrosting ice removal and wipe clean inside container.

Third, pay attention to cleaning the refrigerator door seal. Freezer door seal on more than a dozen species of microbial, is prone to various diseases of the human body, and therefore should be frequently cleaned. If you can wipe with alcohol-soaked dry cloth to clean the sealing strip, works best.

Thermodynamic Panel water heater features

Thermodynamic Panel water heater features 1

Thermodynamic Panel water heater system

ISO poly solar energy Central hot water system of the State

Thermodynamic solar Panel water heater absorbs the Sun’s radiant energy, can be customized according to customer needs, you can also configure auxiliary electric heating system,so it is highly flexible and is able to meet the different users, ensuring all day to provide hot water.

Areas of application:

Can be widely used for hotels, sports stadiums, schools, businesses, institutions, hospitals, public baths and other units such as the domestic hot water supply system, and applies to the indoor swimming pool water heating, used as hot-water aquaculture.

Technical characteristics:

Thermodynamic Panel water heater with higher thermal efficiency, energy saving and more obvious, and has the following characteristics:

1. not only to make efficient use of solar energy, but also can absorb environmental energy such as wind, rain, and compensate for the inefficient conventional solar collector when the weather changes, in practice very little can be done without auxiliary energy consumption or auxiliary energy consumption;

2. each Thermodynamic solar Panel collection efficiency as high as 135%, traditional solar collectors collector area is 1.5 times the same collector plate number of cases will receive more energy;

3. has 18 national patents, a sheet-metal pressing directly into, solid and reliable, no leaks;

4. the patented flow heat more quickly and no heat dissipation to the outside world, thermal effect 100%;

5. Solar Collector plate is the most secure of different poly State collector plate, hail, dust collector plate breakage caused by weather factors such as not, and glass tube solar burst may occur safety maintenance problems such as blow tube. System security problems caused by summer heat exposure does not, equate down status collector plate with ambient temperature, can be naturally occurring heat exchange;

6. panel is light weight, saving installation costs for engineering applications, and the burden of construction load-bearing size.

Maturity:

Persimmon electric solar energy Central hot water system with automatic Thermodynamic solar technology, and developed “intelligent controller of solar effects of poly-State water project system” savings in staff cost of childcare, and simple to use Control Panel, system 15 guarantee of stability. Persimmon electrical and technical reserves technical force is abundant, Thermodynamic Panel water heater design for the implementation of the State experienced.

Application:

Have at places such as government units in East China to establish a series of demonstration projects, access to markets and users alike, to solve the geographical application of solar thermal in winter also showed perfect heating effect and application prospects.

Promotion and cooperation: technical service agent.

Part of the works installation:

ISO poly solar energy Central hot water system of the State